The Spotreducer cream contains the following active ingredients:
Vitamin B3 (niacinamide, nicotinamide)
As an essential nutrient, vitamin B3 plays an important role in cellular energy production and is important for overall skin care. It helps to lighten pigmentation and age spots and vitamin B3 works against both the yellowing of the skin and blotchiness. Vitamin B3 has anti-inflammatory properties and is an important supplementary ingredient in the treatment of troubled skin. More about: Niacinamide an active substance, countless positive effects
Vitamin B3 does not inhibit the direct production of melanin (skin pigment), but stops up to 68% the transport of melanosomes (organ in a skin cell that stores pigment in a package) to the surrounding keratinocytes (skin cells). A clinical study showed that after applying a cream containing vitamin B3 for 8 weeks, the skin gradually became lighter. The age spots around the eyes and on the cheeks were reduced. More about pigment and in particular about melanocytes (pigment cell), melanosomes (pigment package)
Double-blind randomized study (Niacinamide versus Hydroquinone in patients with pregnancy mask) from 2011 concluded: Niacinamide reduced dark spots, inflammatory response and solar elastosis (= loss of your elastic structure in the dermis) and is a safe and effective.
More about pigment spots after a skin condition
By preventing both moisture loss and dryness, vitamin B3 provides a good skin barrier, which prevents the loss of water without feeling heavy and greasy. When assessed for transepidermal water loss (TEWL), a 2000 study found that just 2% of vitamin B3 reduced TEWL by 24% in just 4 weeks. At the same time, the essential fatty acids and the ceramides (the natural lipids in the epidermis that protect against moisture loss and against bacteria) were increased by 67% and 34% respectively.
Skin resistance and sun damage reduction:
An Australian study showed a reduction in actinic keratosis (precursor to a skin cancer, squamous cell carcinoma) after using niacinamide 1% cream. In addition, niacinamide prevents the suppression of the immune system provoked by ultraviolet A (UVA) and B (UVB) rays. Ultraviolet A is always present during all hours of daylight, regardless of cloud cover, snow, rain or storm.
Discovered in the deserts and salt lakes of Egypt, ectoine is a natural substance that protects microorganisms against dehydration, UVA and UVB radiation and extreme temperatures. A study conducted on more than 100 women confirmed that ectoine not only reduces wrinkles, but also prevents the formation of new wrinkles. In addition, ectoine supports the skin’s repair mechanisms against UV damage, limiting premature photo-aging. Ectoin also binds water molecules making the skin feel smoother and more supple.